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name the byproducts of producing iron through efficient

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name the byproducts of producing iron through efficient

the remaining carbon monoxide, in particular, is useful to the chemical reactions going on within the furnace. A blast furnace normally runs day and night for several years. Eventually the brick lining begins to crumble, and the furnace is then shut down for maintenance.

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The blast furnace operation is highly instrumented and is monitored continuously. Times and temperatures are checked and recorded. The chemical content of the iron ores received from the various mines are checked, and the ore is blended with other iron ore to achieve the desired charge. Samples are taken from each pour and checked for chemical content and mechanical properties such as strength and hardness.

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There are a great many possible environmental effects from the iron industry. The first and most obvious is the process of open pit mining. Huge tracts of land are stripped to bare rock. Today, depleted mining sites are commonly used as landfills, then covered over and landscaped. Some of these landfills themselves become environmental problems, since in the recent past, some were used for the disposal of highly toxic substances which leached into soil and water. The process of extracting iron from ore produces great quantities of poisonous and corrosive gases. In practice, these gases are scrubbed and recycled. Inevitably, however, some small amounts of toxic gases escape to the atmosphere. A byproduct of iron purification is slag, which is produced in huge amounts. This material is largely inert, but must still be disposed of in landfills. Ironmaking uses up huge amounts of coal. The coal is not used directly, but is first reduced to coke which consists of almost pure carbon. The...

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On the surface, the future of iron productionespecially in the United Statesappears troubled. Reserves of high quality ore have become considerably depleted in areas where it can be economically extracted. Many long time steel mills have closed. However, these appearances are deceiving. New ore enrichment techniques have made the use of lower grade ore much more attractive, and there is a vast supply of that ore. Many steel plants have closed in recent decades, but this is largely because fewer are needed. The efficiency of blast furnaces alone has improved remarkably. At the beginning of this century, the largest blast furnace in the United States produced 644 tons of pig iron a day. It is believed that soon the possible production of a single furnace will reach 4,000 tons per day. Since many of these more modern plants have been built overseas, it has actually become more economical in some cases to ship steel across the ocean than to produce it in older U.S. plants.

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